Gettysburg, America’s Bloodiest Battle

July 2, 2013

Maybe you’ve been to the Gettysburg National Military Park in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to tour the battlefield and visitor’s center. Maybe you’ve even gone to one of the annual battle anniversaries, where men and women with Civil War-era clothes and weaponry reenact the battle details with great verve. Lasting three days in 1863, from July 1-3, Gettysburg was the bloodiest battle ever fought on American soil, with up to 10,000 Union and Confederate troops dead and another 30,000 wounded. But surprisingly, this tremendous battle was a purely unplanned accident that grew out of a desperate need for soldiers’ shoes!


Image: Battle of Gettysburg Reenactors at “the Wall”. Image source:

Visiting the Gettysburg National Military Park

Having witnessed the activities of scores of reenactors who visited the park during the years I lived near the town, I know that people invest themselves very deeply in the Civil War in general, and in the Gettysburg battle in particular. You don’t have to be an extreme fan to appreciate the silence of the rolling battlefield landscape. Imagining the July heat, the stench of sweat, horse, wool clothing and blood, the cries of pain and death, is easy to do when you’re standing there on that “consecrated ground” as Lincoln said in his famous Gettysburg Address after the battle.

Park officials and enthusiasts always commemorate the battle days in Gettysburg, as is happening this week, and it’s a great event for those who can attend in person. When you want to actually (or mentally) place yourself in specific skirmishes in the battle on specific points on the field, you will need a guide. You can hire a guide to ride with your group and interpret the tour for you. That kind of activity is excellent, but is pricey and requires advance planning.

But if you haven’t visited the battlefield, this sesquicentennial anniversary year is a good time to make a virtual trip, if not a real one. (There are over 12,000 reenactors, with 300 foreign reenactors from 16 different countries, and tens of thousands of visitors anticipated for this year’s 150th anniversary reenactment!)

Starting with these guide and history books below is a great beginning to what could be a life-long interest.

The Best of Guides

To fully understand the Gettysburg Campaign and its significance as the pivotal point in the American Civil War, you need to learn from experts. Fortunately, GPO has publications from the two best sources: the US Army Center of Military History and the National Park Service.

The Gettysburg Campaign: June–July 1863 and Gettysburg National Military Park Handbook

   Gettysburg-Campaign-from-GPOThird in “The U.S. Army Campaigns of the Civil War” series  of campaign brochures from the U.S. Army Center of Military History that commemorate our national sacrifices during the American Civil War, The Gettysburg Campaign: June–July 1863 describes the turning point in the “Battle Between the States.” Authors Carol Reardon and Tom Vossler examine the military operations and strategies along with the somewhat accidental circumstances that culminated in the pivotal and devastating three-day Battle of Gettysburg. With many maps and illustrations, this helps provide some back story and military strategy, as it goes into the various skirmishes leading up to the battle starting back in June and up to the battle itself.

As General Robert E. Lee of the Confederate Army said,

“It had not been intended to fight a general battle at such a distance from our base, unless attacked by the enemy, but finding ourselves unexpectedly confronted by the Federal Army, it became a matter of difficulty to withdraw through the mountains with our large trains. . . . A battle thus became in a measure unavoidable (Campaign, p. 31).”


The National Park Service’s publication, Gettysburg National Military Park Handbook, delves into the history of the battleground itself, that “consecrated ground” and provides a detailed guide of all the amenities of the park along with the on-field maneuvers and results, as well as insight into the personalities and anecdotes that such an epic event always generates. It also covers post-battle events, such as the establishment of a cemetery at Gettysburg and the genesis of Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, as well as reproductions of 12 battle paintings by F. D. Briscoe. It’s like having a National Park ranger pointing out key aspects and giving you insights about this important national landmark.

Hooker out, Black Hats in

Through both of these excellent publications, you can come to know a bit about the personnel of the Gettysburg Campaign, such as the story of the last-minute, last-ditch replacement of General Hooker as Commander of the Federal Army of the Potomac by General George G. Meade. Commander of the U.S. Army General Halleck replaced Hooker at his own demand, and Hooker left his command in a great hurry. Meade arrived at Gettysburg knowing little of the status of his troops and even less about Lee’s troops. You can also read all the details of General Daniel Sickles’ unauthorized movements from Cemetery Hill.

Michigan-soldier-iron-brigade-Civil-WarDon’t forget to study the awe-inspiring story of the Iron Brigade, also known as the Black Hat Brigade. Some Confederates called them “them Black Hat Fellers” because of the black Hardee hats they wore that were different from the standard-issue Union blue kepi hats. Made up of the 2nd, 6th, and 7th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiments, the 19th Indiana, and the 24th Michigan, the Iron Brigade was famous for its fierceness on the field. The Iron Brigade made a tremendous impact during the Gettysburg Campaign, and they suffered dire casualties as a result. Their bravery in fighting on Herbst’s Woodlot and against the 26th North Carolina had a strong effect on the outcome of the Gettysburg Campaign.

Image: Gochy Charles. Company F, 24th Michigan (Iron Brigade). Image Source:

How can I obtain these Gettysburg publications?

The more you read about these and other stories of the battle, the more easily you can get drawn in to the story of all the human bravery, pathos and drama that was part of the Gettysburg Campaign and the American Civil War. Immerse yourself in the history of The Gettysburg Campaign: June–July 1863 and familiarize yourself with the park through the Gettysburg National Military Park Handbook. You’re likely to be endlessly fascinated.

Federal Depository Librarians: You can find the records for these titles in the CGP.

About the author(s): Our co-bloggers include: guest blogger Jennifer K. Davis from GPO’s Library Services & Content Management Division that supports the Federal Depository Libraries Program (FDLP) and Government Book Talk Editor, Michele Bartram, GPO Promotions & Ecommerce Manager.

The Civil War: 150 Years Later

May 9, 2011

Guest blogger Kim Dutch remembers the bloodiest conflict in American history.

This year is the 150th anniversary, or the Sesquicentennial (which I’m still having trouble pronouncing!), of the Civil War.  In that spirit, there are very few topics which bind us more than wars that were fought that eventually made our nation greater.  I was fortunate enough to grow up with a war history buff in the family and was particularly fascinated by the Civil War.  It amazed me how brothers fought brothers, families were divided, and that each side had such fierce loyalties.  Men and women sacrificed with no further thought or gain than “This is my duty and my honor to serve” – and sacrifices were made by all sides. 

The Civil War at a Glance” tells the story in a poignant and entertaining series of break downs.  The brochure is organized yearly using maps and chronologies.  It begins with the Eastern Theater in 1861, when Northerners called it the War of the Rebellion and the Southerners deemed it the War Between the States.  Regardless, it resulted in “pitting two vast sections of a young and vigorous nation against each other.”  For the next four years, the Union forces would struggle to get to Richmond, the Confederate capital.  Most of that fight would take place between Washington and Richmond – there’s even a breakdown by State and number of battles thought to have been fought in each.  The author lays out the path the rest of the war took in the Western Theater, too, until the end in 1865. Along the way the battles and campaigns are summarized succinctly and are easy to follow so you can get a great sense of what occurred.   It concisely explains how some battles were pivotal, the paths and strategies used to win (or fail), and the men who led them.

The author quotes Mark Twain, who said the war had “uprooted institutions that were centuries old … transformed the social life of half the country, and wrought so profoundly upon the entire national character that the influence cannot be measured short of two or three generations.”  I’d like to think that those factors since have been transformed us into a greater nation with better rights and civil liberties for all.

You can find a plain text version at  But what REALLY stood out was a colorful and user friendly online site,, which has a wealth of information.  It has an interactive feature that allows you to create maps based on State boundaries and links throughout the site for more information about people, dates, and places. 

If you want your own personal copy, you can order it here.If you would like printed copies in packages, visit the GPO Online Bookstore. The folder makes for a handy and quick reference resource for individuals and schools and other groups.  Also, it’s easy to bring along if you’re actually visiting the areas and want to have the information and timelines on hand.

There’s no shortage of information on the Civil War out there, but it’s nice to have it summarized for those of us who may have forgotten some of our history lessons…not me, of course!

 For more celebrating and commemorating: The National Park Service has an Internet page dedicated to the Civil War’s 150th anniversary,, where you can find further publications, activities, and parks – it even has a site where you can search for individual soldiers.  GPO has also put together a special sale of Civil War publications in its Special Collections section,, to honor the occasion.  I think you can never have enough recommendations and amazing stories about this war!

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