Pearl Harbor at 75 & Three Pacific Battles That Shaped WWII

December 6, 2016
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Battleship USS Arizona on fire and sinking (Image source: archives.gov)

Moments before 8 a.m. on December 7, 1941, the United States was ‘suddenly and deliberately attacked.’ Hundreds of Japanese fighter planes and bombers launched a surprise assault on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. The swift, devastating volley on the U.S. naval base killed 2,403 Americans. With President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s famous “a date which will live in infamy” proclamation, America had finally joined WWII.

008-046-00301-7That momentous week of loss and defiance took place seventy-five years ago. After Pearl Harbor, the U.S. fought Imperial Japanese forces for a superior hold in Pacific waters. On the list of the 10 greatest battles of that front, you will find Midway, Coral Sea, and the Philippine Sea. GPO makes available a U.S. Naval War College study, Major-Fleet Versus-Fleet Operations in the Pacific War, 1941-1945, that takes a look at those three major naval operations.

Japanese planning in the Pacific War, according to author and naval historian Dr. Milan Vego, was unnecessarily complicated and focused too closely on offensive maneuvers. Nonetheless, Japan was hell-bent on defeating the U.S. Pacific fleet.

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Sinking of Japanese carrier Shoho during Battle of Coral Sea, 1942

American military intelligence, and eventually the entire fleet, prevailed. The book’s primary-source archival material points to the timely concentration of U.S. forces at the appropriate place and at the appropriate time. The U.S. dominated the resultant Coral Sea, Midway/Aleutians, and the Philippine Sea battles—victories that presented a big sea change in the Pacific theater.

The author provides a detailed, well-supported sketch of three major battle areas that decisively shaped WWII. Maps, strategic context, and action analysis provide an authoritative, insightful resource for naval professionals. Major-Fleet Versus-Fleet Operations in the Pacific War identifies universal, tactical lessons of interest for today’s U.S. Navy and, of course, military history buffs.

HOW DO I OBTAIN THIS RESOURCE?

Shop Online Anytime: You can buy eBooks or print publications —with FREE Standard Shipping worldwide— from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore at http://bookstore.gpo.gov.

Shop our Retail Store: Buy a copy of any print editions from this collection at GPO’s retail bookstore at 710 North Capitol Street NW, Washington, DC 20401, open Monday–Friday, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., except Federal holidays, Call (202) 512-0132 for information or to arrange in-store pick-up.

Order by Phone: Call our Customer Contact Center Monday through Friday, 8 am to 5:30 pm Eastern (except US Federal holidays). From US and Canada, call toll-free 1.866.512.1800. DC or International customers call +1.202.512.1800.

Visit a Federal depository library: Search for U.S. Government publications in a nearby Federal depository library. You can find the records for most titles in GPO’s Catalog of U.S. Government Publications.

About the author: Blogger contributor Chelsea Milko is a Public Relations Specialist in GPO’s Public Relations Office.


Veterans Day: Serving Those Who Served

November 9, 2016

arlington-820751_960_720As we well know, November 11 is Veterans Day. But it wasn’t always called that. At the end of WWI, President Woodrow Wilson declared November 11 as the first Armistice Day with the following words: “To us in America, the reflections of Armistice Day will be filled with solemn pride in the heroism of those who died in the country’s service and with gratitude for the victory.” Not until June 1, 1954 did President Dwight D. Eisenhower sign the law that struck out the word “Armistice” and replaced it with “Veterans.” Thus, November 11 became a day to honor American veterans of all wars. GPO employees printed that original act and now make it digitally available on govinfo.

One important way the U.S. Government honors all military service veterans is by providing first-rate health benefits and services. The Department of Veteran’s Affairs serves more than 8 million Veterans each year. Coverage is immediate, travels with recipients, meets healthcare law standards, and surpasses quality and effectiveness measurements. It’s the care Veterans have earned.

GPO makes available these health and benefits resources from the VA and its Veterans Health Administration:

Health Care Benefits Overview 2016 Edition, Vols. 1 & 2

051-000-00256-3This comprehensive medical benefits publication includes the standard FAQs on basic eligibility requirements, enrollment, copays, Medicare Part D prescription drug coverage, and the like. It also highlights community living centers, medical foster homes, geriatric evaluation, home telehealth, and online tools that are part of the VA’s silver plate of world-class care.

Federal Benefits for Veterans, Dependents and Survivors 2016

051-000-00258-0This annual publication provides a complete summary of all Federal benefits available to qualified American veterans and their families. It’s must-have, up-to-date information on the benefits and rights owed to those who accepted the responsibility to defend America when duty called.

In the VA’s own words: “Our Servicemembers and Veterans have sacrificed to keep our country – and everything it represents – safe…Thank you for your service. Now let us serve you.”

HOW DO I OBTAIN THESE RESOURCES?

Shop Online Anytime: You can buy eBooks or print publications —with FREE Standard Shipping worldwide— from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore at http://bookstore.gpo.gov.

Shop our Retail Store: Buy a copy of any print editions from this collection at GPO’s retail bookstore at 710 North Capitol Street NW, Washington, DC 20401, open Monday–Friday, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., except Federal holidays, Call (202) 512-0132 for information or to arrange in-store pick-up.

Order by Phone: Call our Customer Contact Center Monday through Friday, 8 am to 5:30 pm Eastern (except US Federal holidays). From US and Canada, call toll-free 1.866.512.1800. DC or International customers call +1.202.512.1800.

Visit a Federal depository library: Search for U.S. Government publications in a nearby Federal depository library. You can find the records for most titles in GPO’s Catalog of U.S. Government Publications.

About the author: Blogger contributor Chelsea Milko is a Public Relations Specialist in GPO’s Public Relations Office.


Strategic Studies from the U.S. Army War College

October 25, 2016

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In Carlisle Barracks, PA, one of our nation’s oldest military installations prepares the next generation of senior leaders for a changing world. It’s called the U.S. Army War College—a place where a community of security and military minds convert issues into strategy.

The Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) is the “geostrategic and national security research and analysis” arm of the U.S. Army War College. They’re a little bit like the U.S. Army’s own think tank. SSI is filled with experienced research staff who develop strategic recommendations. Such independent analysis is often published in booklet form.

GPO makes available a wide range of SSI publications. Let’s take a quick look at two recent additions to the collection.

9781584877332The Pivot to Asia: Can It Serve as the Foundation for American Grand Strategy in the 21st Century?

In 2012, the Obama administration announced a “Pivot to East Asia” strategy designed to prioritize the deepening of bilateral relationships with emerging economies in the region. This SSI work places that policy in historical context and discusses “problems that the Obama team faced in its efforts to solicit the support of regional friends and allies.” It also provides analysis of how U.S. outreach efforts utilized a network of military partners as well as the role U.S.-China relations in the pivot campaign.

From Assistance to Partnership: Morocco and its Foreign Policy in West Africa

9781584877110Morocco lies at a geopolitical and cultural crossroads like no other country in Africa. Sustained economic growth and political stability are reshaping it into a bulwark of peace and counter-extremism in West Africa. This strategic study examines how Morocco is strengthening its position as a regional security provider in the region. It “aspires to…[be] a partner of choice for the United States and other organizations seeking to develop their interests in Sub-Saharan Africa. It’s learning how to savvily leverage “security cooperation, economic development, strengthening cultural ties, and capacity building” with partners inside and outside the region.

HOW DO I OBTAIN THESE MILITARY RESOURCES?

Shop Online Anytime: You can buy eBooks or print publications —with FREE Standard Shipping worldwide— from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore at http://bookstore.gpo.gov.

Shop our Retail Store: Buy a copy of any print editions from this collection at GPO’s retail bookstore at 710 North Capitol Street NW, Washington, DC 20401, open Monday–Friday, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., except Federal holidays, Call (202) 512-0132 for information or to arrange in-store pick-up.

Order by Phone: Call our Customer Contact Center Monday through Friday, 8 am to 5:30 pm Eastern (except US Federal holidays). From US and Canada, call toll-free 1.866.512.1800. DC or International customers call +1.202.512.1800.

Visit a Federal depository library: Search for U.S. Government publications in a nearby Federal depository library. You can find the records for most titles in GPO’s Catalog of U.S. Government Publications.

About the author: Blogger contributor Chelsea Milko is a Public Relations Specialist in GPO’s Public Relations Office.


A ‘primer’ on U.S. military force structure

October 20, 2016

The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is the world’s largest organization. So, examining the defense budget has got to be pretty daunting. The enormity and complexity of the U.S. military makes it difficult to crunch the numbers needed to organize, train, and equip a ready military.

Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution confers Congress with broad powers over the armed forces. As a part of that authority, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) is mandated to provide objective, impartial analysis of government-wide spending, including that of the DoD. To that end, the CBO’s The U.S. Military’s Force Structure: A Primer is now available through GPO.

052-070-07701-8Each year, Congress passes the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA). This report looks at how the DoD allocates nearly $400 billion of that spending bill on day-to-day “operation and support” of military units—pretty much anything that “produces, sustains, and supports combat units.” In other words, the “force structure.”

This primer breaks down “the budgetary effects of altering the force structure.” Because of spending controls and budget cuts, policymakers tasked with trimming the force structure can get a better understanding the trade-offs associated with each choice.

military-force-002CBO factors in the costs and structure of Army brigade combat teams, Navy battle force ships, Marine air-ground task forces, Air Force fixed-wing aircraft squadrons, and defense-wide organizations that provide centralized assistance for each service. It even looks at how major combat units have been utilized in past conflicts.

Every fiscal year, lawmakers decide the appropriate size of the military—for example, what major combat units or weapon systems to add or eliminate. A well-designed defense budget directly affects military readiness. CBO’s The U.S. Military’s Force Structure: A Primer is a timely reference for making those important decisions.

HOW DO I OBTAIN THIS MILITARY RESOURCE?

Shop Online Anytime: You can buy eBooks or print publications —with FREE Standard Shipping worldwide— from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore at http://bookstore.gpo.gov.

Shop our Retail Store: Buy a copy of any print editions from this collection at GPO’s retail bookstore at 710 North Capitol Street NW, Washington, DC 20401, open Monday–Friday, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., except Federal holidays, Call (202) 512-0132 for information or to arrange in-store pick-up.

Order by Phone: Call our Customer Contact Center Monday through Friday, 8 am to 5:30 pm Eastern (except US Federal holidays). From US and Canada, call toll-free 1.866.512.1800. DC or International customers call +1.202.512.1800.

Visit a Federal depository library: Search for U.S. Government publications in a nearby Federal depository library. You can find the records for most titles in GPO’s Catalog of U.S. Government Publications.

About the author: Blogger contributor Chelsea Milko is a Public Relations Specialist in GPO’s Public Relations Office.


U.S. Army Nurse Corps: “Courage to Care”

October 12, 2016

Military and women’s history intersect in many ways. For more than two centuries, thousands of qualified women have served America in the Army Nurse Corps in particular. Each military branch has their own nursing corps. GPO makes available U.S. Army Center of Military History’s “Highlights in the History of the Army Nurses Corps.”

Poster encouraging women to join the U.S. Army Nurse Corps during World War II. Interested citizens could apply at Red Cross recruiting stations.This booklet chronicles the contributions of women nurses throughout the development of the Army Nurse Corps. Their story begins during the American Revolution when General George Washington asked Congress for nurses “to attend the sick.” In the decades that followed, whenever the military establishment expanded or contracted, medical services followed suit.

The Spanish-American War was a turning point for military nurses. Although not commissioned as a regular part of the Army, more than 1,500 female civilian nurses volunteered to care for the wounded. Shortly thereafter, in 1901, the female Nurse Corps became permanent under the Army Reorganization Act.

Poster encouraging women to join the U.S. Army Nurse Corps during World War II. Interested citizens could apply at Red Cross recruiting stations.

Poster encouraging women to join the U.S. Army Nurse Corps during World War II. Interested citizens could apply at Red Cross recruiting stations.

If there ever was a time when the Army Nurse Corps was an indispensable part of the American military establishment, it was during WWII. Several pages of the book are devoted to this period. At one point the number of active duty nurses swelled to 57,000. Sixty-six were captured and imprisoned by the Japanese in the Philippines. Many landed in North Africa on the day of 1942 invasion. Others arrived just days after the 1944 Normandy beach landing. Tragically, by the war’s end, 215 Army nurses died while serving.

Be it on base battlefield hospitals in WWII France, in MASH units on the front lines of the Korean War, or among a 6,000 strong crew during Vietnam, Army nurses helped to save tens of thousands of lives. Numbers may have waned in peacetime but standards in training and care never did.

U.S. Army Nurse 1st Lt. Arnelle Lewis takes a Guatemalan boy's temperature during a medical readiness training exercise in Santa Cruz Balanya, Guatemala, on March 10, 2007. Lewis is a registered nurse attached to the U.S. Virgin Islands Army National Guard.

U.S. Army Nurse 1st Lt. Arnelle Lewis takes a Guatemalan boy’s temperature during a medical readiness training exercise in Santa Cruz Balanya, Guatemala, on March 10, 2007. Lewis is a registered nurse attached to the U.S. Virgin Islands Army National Guard.

Today, the Army Nurse Corps is made up entirely of registered nurses. Army nurses are deployed all over the world in support of humanitarian and anti-terrorism missions. According to the Corps’ official creed, members continue to have the “courage to care, courage to connect, and courage to change.”

HOW DO I OBTAIN THIS PUBLICATION?

Shop Online Anytime: You can buy eBooks or print publications —with FREE Standard Shipping worldwide— from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore at http://bookstore.gpo.gov.

Shop our Retail Store: Buy a copy of any print editions from this collection at GPO’s retail bookstore at 710 North Capitol Street NW, Washington, DC 20401, open Monday–Friday, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., except Federal holidays, Call (202) 512-0132 for information or to arrange in-store pick-up.

Order by Phone: Call our Customer Contact Center Monday through Friday, 8 am to 5:30 pm Eastern (except US Federal holidays). From US and Canada, call toll-free 1.866.512.1800. DC or International customers call +1.202.512.1800.

Visit a Federal depository library: Search for U.S. Government publications in a nearby Federal depository library. You can find the records for most titles in GPO’s Catalog of U.S. Government Publications.

About the author: Blogger contributor Chelsea Milko is a Public Relations Specialist in GPO’s Public Relations Office.


How Naval Intelligence Shaped the Vietnam War

September 12, 2016

During the Vietnam War, U.S. naval intelligence was a very complex affair. Layers of political organization, military strategy, offensive tactics, and logistical operations shaded the struggle to win in South Vietnam. Much of that portion of the Cold War era is now declassified, illuminating the contributions of the naval intelligence establishment.

008-046-00298-3GPO makes available “Knowing the Enemy: Naval Intelligence in Southeast Asia,” part of the U.S. Department of the Navy series of commemorative studies on the Vietnam War.

The U.S. Navy intelligence effort in Vietnam played out in several pivotal events. Intelligence-gathering squadrons informed operations during 1964’s Tonkin Gulf Crisis and 1968’s Tet Offensive. Naval commands closely traced Soviet and Chinese military aid to North Vietnam and surveilled the use of the vital Cambodian port of Sihanoukville. And analysts processed raw data that informed the Linebacker bombing campaigns and pressed North Korea to eventually negotiate terms to end the war.

A SEAL scans the surroundings during his unit's intelligence-gathering mission in a Mekong Delta village.

A SEAL scans the surroundings during his unit’s intelligence-gathering mission in a Mekong Delta village.

Officers and enlisted personnel gathered and analyzed credible intel on the movement of Communist combat units, the location of Viet Cong encampments, and the flow of weapons and ammunition along the Mekong Delta. The communications, electronic, human, and imagery intelligence they collected was “key to the operational and tactical success of naval forces in the Vietnam War.”

Members of the naval intelligence community that routinely “engaged in intelligence collection often did their dangerous but vital work in direct contact with the enemy.” For example, photo reconnaissance pilots flew fast and furiously into oncoming antiaircraft fire for the best pictures—“since anything worth photographing was likely well-defended.” Hardly desk drones, intelligence staffs “fought face-to-face with the enemy” and suffered causalities for it.

Photo intelligence 3rd Class Charles R. Pearson uses his stereoscopic equipment to analyze an aerial image of an enemy site in Vietnam.

Photo intelligence 3rd Class Charles R. Pearson uses his stereoscopic equipment to analyze an aerial image of an enemy site in Vietnam.

U.S. naval intelligence units furnished operational forces “with information that, for the most part, improved their battle performance…and prospects for survival in combat.” More than anything, the cadre of intelligence professionals helped the American military understand the enemy.

HOW DO I OBTAIN THIS PUBLICATION?

Shop Online Anytime: You can buy eBooks or print publications —with FREE Standard Shipping worldwide— from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore at http://bookstore.gpo.gov.

 Shop our Retail Store: Buy a copy of any print editions from this collection at GPO’s retail bookstore at 710 North Capitol Street NW, Washington, DC 20401, open Monday–Friday, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., except Federal holidays, Call (202) 512-0132 for information or to arrange in-store pick-up.

Order by Phone: Call our Customer Contact Center Monday through Friday, 8 am to 5:30 pm Eastern (except US Federal holidays). From US and Canada, call toll-free 1.866.512.1800. DC or International customers call +1.202.512.1800.

Visit a Federal depository library: Search for U.S. Government publications in a nearby Federal depository library. You can find the records for most titles in GPO’s Catalog of U.S. Government Publications.

About the author: Blogger contributor Chelsea Milko is a Public Relations Specialist in GPO’s Public Relations Office.

 


National Aviation Day

August 18, 2016

August 19th is National Aviation Day, a yearly observance to celebrate the history and development of aviation. Another fun fact: the day is also Orville Wright’s birthday!

GPO makes available a wide range of Federal Government publications about flight.

First Flight: The Wright Brothers and the Invention of the Airplane

024-005-01212-5Twelve seconds in the air turned into over 100 years of aviation progress. In December 1903, Wilbur and Orville Wright stuck their first—and the world’s first—successful flight in a heavier-than-air, mechanically controlled machine. The sibling inventors behind the defining technology of the last century are the subject of this National Park Service handbook. In his forward, astronaut and former U.S. Senator John Glenn defers to the duo as the “first astronauts. Their initial short flight opened our quest to reach beyond the world we know. They were the first test pilots.” A foolhardy flying machine became a phenomena of human achievement. The Wright Brothers made their home above the world and consequently changed the world.

Logbook of the Signal Corps No. 1: The United States Army’s First Airplane (eBook)

Indeed the Wright Bros. invention changed the world. And changed the U.S. Army. This book tells the story of a self-taught aviator and his Wright flyer responsible for the launch of military airpower. In 1909, the U.S. Army Signal Corps paid $30,000 to Orville and Wilbur for a custom-made aircraft designated “Signal Corps No. 1.” A plucky young lieutenant with no prior flying experience was elected its sole operator. “Take plenty of spare parts,” a commanding officer told 1st Lt. Benjamin D. Foulois, “and teach yourself to fly.” Through industrious trial and error and long-distance guidance from the Wright Brothers, Foulois learned to fly the Army’s very first airplane. Read this book and then go visit the Smithsonian Air & Space Museum in DC. There you will find the original Signal Corps No. 1, a beautifully restored piece of Army aviation history.

The Combat Edge

708-051-00313-5This quarterly publication of the Air Force’s Air Combat Command features articles and stories about flight safety. As aviation technology evolves to enhance combat capability, so must risk mitigation. Thus, ACC’s safety magazine looks to “foster a culture where Airmen strive for zero mishaps.” Developing this sort of discipline keeps safety standards high so that top guns can continue to “Aim High … Fly-Fight-Win.”

The Air Almanac for the Year 2016 (eBook)

008-054-00245-5For millennia, navigators have been using the stars to chart their course. Aircraft rely on similar celestial navigation. The Air Almanac contains astronomical data produced by The U.S. Naval Observatory in collaboration Her Majesty’s Nautical Almanac Office in the U.K. Published annually since 1941, this cosmic directory tabulates statistics at 10-minute intervals to a precision of 1 arcminute. Predictions include Greenwich hour angles; lunar rise and set times; sky diagrams for each month; charts for moon visibility and star positions; and sunrise, sunset, and twilight tables.

HOW DO I OBTAIN THESE RESOURCES?

Shop Online Anytime: You can buy eBooks or print publications —with FREE Standard Shipping worldwide— from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore at http://bookstore.gpo.gov.

 Shop our Retail Store: Buy a copy of any print editions from this collection at GPO’s retail bookstore at 710 North Capitol Street NW, Washington, DC 20401, open Monday–Friday, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., except Federal holidays, Call (202) 512-0132 for information or to arrange in-store pick-up.

Order by Phone: Call our Customer Contact Center Monday through Friday, 8 am to 5:30 pm Eastern (except US Federal holidays). From US and Canada, call toll-free 1.866.512.1800. DC or International customers call +1.202.512.1800.

Visit a Federal depository library: Search for U.S. Government publications in a nearby Federal depository library. You can find the records for most titles in GPO’s Catalog of U.S. Government Publications.

About the author: Blogger contributor Chelsea Milko is a Public Relations Specialist in GPO’s Public Relations Office.

 


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