How are Animals Used in America’s Military Medical Corps?

January 23, 2020

A military working dog and its military police handler inspect vehicles. Image from publication.

Since the dawn of time, human beings and animals have co-existed. Animals are worshipped, eaten, used for clothes, and are man’s best friend. Not only have they been on the frontlines of our daily lives, but also of war. From wars in Ancient Rome to the Civil War, World War I, World War II, and to the war in Iraq, there is no war animals have not been a part of. The publication Military Veterinary Services from the Borden Institute’s Textbooks of Military Medicine series available at the GPO bookstore consists of a collection of essays that sheds light on the close relationship between the U.S. military and animals. It is worth reading to expand your traditional understanding of which animals are being used by the military and how they are being used. You will be surprised by what you learn, and by how much you come to appreciate these animals. Below are a few gems highlighted in this work.

When George Washington so famously demanded, “A regiment of horse with a farrier” be built, he realized that by taking care of animals, we are ultimately taking care of ourselves; in doing so, he set the blueprint for the U.S. Army Veterinary Corps. The Veterinary Corps, founded in 1916, is one of six corps that fall under the U.S. Army Medical Department. In 1980, it began providing veterinary services to all military branches. The purpose of the Veterinary Corps is to protect the warfighter by conducting food safety inspections, providing animal defense functions, providing veterinary public health services to animals (medical and surgical), and performing biomedical research (related to diseases). This book details how exactly the Veterinary Corps accomplishes this mission statement.

Food safety

In the past, lack of regulation led to filthy and dangerous conditions in American food factories. Food conditions abroad were even worse. This created problems for soldiers stationed domestically and abroad. This issue of food safety was systematically tackled by the U.S. Army Veterinary Corps. The Corps began inspecting military facilities domestically and abroad, continuously monitoring the quality of food sources available to soldiers, in hopes of preventing disease and harm to soldiers.

 Animals and defense

We know the role animals play in our everyday lives, but what role do they play in the military? The Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Marines, and the Coast Guard all use military working animals. The military’s use of animals depends on the mission. Dogs are used for security, law enforcement, combat tracking, and explosives and narcotics detection, while horses were primarily used for cavalry in the past, but are now used more for ceremonial purposes. But did you know the military also uses dolphins, beluga whales, sea lions, special operations horses, mules, carrier pigeons, and peacocks? Peacocks serve as security alarms at select government facilities; pigeons were not only used in ancient times, but also as early as WWI and WWII as information carriers; and sea lions and dolphins are used for swimmer defense and object recovery. In the civilian world, animals are often used as mascots to give spirit to a cause or a sports team or political party. The military is no different. The Army uses a mule, the Navy uses a goat, the Marines use a bulldog, the Air force uses a falcon, and the Coast Guard has several animal mascots, of which the most famous is a Rottweiler named “Sinbad”.

 Animals and medicine

A veterinary technician, bandages the paw of a scout dog c.1945. Image from publication.

Animals are also used for medical purposes. In light of studies confirming the effectiveness of animal companionship in reducing blood pressure, helping relieve anxiety, and in combatting depression and stress, pets are often given to soldiers, especially ones returning from war.

That said, with all that animals do for us, they too get depressed, get diseases, and sometimes are even casualties of war. The Veterinary Corps realized that by taking care of animals we are ultimately taking care of ourselves. Dr. Calvin Schwabe, the father of veterinary epidemiology, coined the term, “One medicine,” which says the well-being of animals depends on the well-being of humans, and vice versa. Zoonotics, sicknesses passed on from animals, amounts to 60 percent of known human pathogens. This is one example of animal-human linkage. In the Civil war, nurses helped control the spread of rabies. This threat emerged again a century later in the Vietnam War. The Veterinary Corps works diligently researching and finding solutions to such problems, learning from the past, and setting a path for the future.

The emphasis the Veterinary Corps places on understanding this animal-human linkage is echoed in its structure, and is displayed by the relationship between its physicians and veterinarians. Although the two professions don’t interact much in the civilian sector, that is not the case in the military. In fact, despite serving two separate populations, physicians and veterinarians often receive identical training (See Military Veterinary Services, chapter 13, introduction, section titled “Implementation of the One Health concept” for further detail).

In conclusion, this authoritative resource covers many areas about animals in the armed forces. However, the majority of the publication focuses on the medical veterinary services. The essays featured in this volume cover a range of topics from detailing the activities of MEDEVAC (movement of animal and human casualties from the battle field), to the history of military working dogs to the history of privately owned animal care facilities in the U.S. Army, and everything in between.

Additionally, Preventive health: preventive veterinary care and Veterinary connections produced by the Army Public Health Center can be found through search in the Catalog of Government Publications.

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Shop Online Anytime: You can buy a vast majority of eBooks or print publications —with FREE Standard Shipping worldwide— from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore at https://bookstore.gpo.gov.

Visit our Retail Store: To buy or order a copy of any print editions from this collection at GPO’s retail bookstore at 710 North Capitol Street NW, Washington, DC 20401, open Monday–Friday, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., except Federal holidays, Call (202) 512-0132 for information or to arrange in-store pick-up(s).

Order by Phone or Email: Call our Customer Contact Center Monday through Friday, 8 am to 4:30 pm Eastern (except US Federal holidays). From US and Canada, call toll-free 1.866.512.1800. DC or International customers call +1.202.512.1800.  Email orders to ContactCenter@gpo.gov

Visit a Federal depository library: Search for U.S. Government publications in a nearby Federal depository library. You can find the records for most titles in GPO’s Catalog of U.S. Government Publications.

Find more than a million official Federal Government publications from all three branches at www.govinfo.gov.

About the authorBlogger contributor Mohammed Butt is a Technical Services Librarian in GPO’s Library Services & Content Management unit.


Ever Wonder How Military Law and Ethics Impacts the Military Medical Officer?

January 16, 2020

Providing medical care for soldiers has been a hallmark of civilization and dates as far back as Ancient Egypt. Fundamentals of Military Medicine defines military medicine as the application of medical art and science in a military setting. The medical doctor and military officer are two of the most prestigious professions in the United States. Military Medical Officers (MMO) are expected to be experts in both fields.

This comprehensive reference provides foundations for a medical response within the battlefield of deployed military personnel by land, sea, or air. It also explores the operational, humanitarian, ethical, and strategic roles of military medicine and all officers, including command staff.

MMOs vow to defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic and to hold faith and allegiance while also following orders of the President. They must adhere to both medical and military ethical standards. Additionally, MMOs ensure that the medical dimension of law of armed conflict is enforced in accordance to the United States’ obligation to the Geneva Convention. In the chapter covering the “History of the Military Medical Officer,” you will learn about some of the most shocking crimes that were conducted by doctors in Nazi Germany, who ran lethal experiments on human beings. These war crimes led to the development of the Nuremberg Code, the regulation of human medical experiments, and the adoption of the Geneva Convention of 1949.

“Military Law and Ethics,” another important chapter, provides several military law definitions and an overview of the military justice system.  Additionally, there are examples of “civilian” offenses, “uniquely military” offenses, military “catchall” offenses, and war crimes. The chapter goes onto to describe how the military justice system works with command discretion, investigations, mental health evaluation, courts-martial, disciplinary rules unique to public health service officers, and more. The section dedicated to  “Enlisted Members” narrates a brief history of the enlisted members in military medicine. Outlines are provided of the rank structure for military service personnel across America’s military branches, such as Junior Enlisted promotions to the Noncommissioned or Petty Officer.  This chapter also includes an overview of medical training of the enlisted personnel, such as laboratory equipment and diagnostic services, nursing and specialty medical care across many areas such as surgery, respiratory, preventive medicine, veterinary, and more.

Task Force Marauder participates in mass casualty exercise. Image from publication (by Capt. Jessica Donnelly).

Fundamentals of Military Medicine provides an in-depth look at various aspects of healthcare that the military prioritizes and includes dedicated chapters within this authoritative volume. Some of these include military law and ethics, physical fitness, performance nutrition, environmental extremes, psychological well-being, recovery, injury prevention, spiritual fitness, family readiness, tactical medicine, CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive) threats, and more.

The topics in this book serve as an introduction and as a broad overview of the responsibilities of America’s Military Medical Corps. This authoritative work may appeal most to people interested in military medicine and for medical students who want to explore a career in military medicine.

Many of the resources published by the Borden Institute can be found by searching GPO Online Bookstore Borden Institute collection and by searching through the Catalog of Government Publications, also commonly known as the “CGP” to academics and librarians.

The GPO Online Bookstore – Easy Access to Federal Publications

HOW DO I OBTAIN THIS RESOURCE?

Sign up to receive promotional bulletin emails from the US Government Online Bookstore.

Shop Online Anytime: You can buy a vast majority of eBooks or print publications —with FREE Standard Shipping worldwide— from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore at https://bookstore.gpo.gov.

Visit our Retail Store: To buy or order a copy of any print editions from this collection at GPO’s retail bookstore at 710 North Capitol Street NW, Washington, DC 20401, open Monday–Friday, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., except Federal holidays, Call (202) 512-0132 for information or to arrange in-store pick-up(s).

Order by Phone or Email: Call our Customer Contact Center Monday through Friday, 8 am to 4:30 pm Eastern (except US Federal holidays). From US and Canada, call toll-free 1.866.512.1800. DC or International customers call +1.202.512.1800.  Email orders to ContactCenter@gpo.gov

Visit a Federal depository library: Search for U.S. Government publications in a nearby Federal depository library. You can find the records for most titles in GPO’s Catalog of U.S. Government Publications.

Find more than a million official Federal Government publications from all three branches at www.govinfo.gov.

About the authorBlogger contributor Vanathy Senthilkumar is a Systems Librarian in the Library Service and Content Management department of GPO.

 


The Evolution of Forward Surgery in the U.S. Army

August 30, 2019

As its title suggests, The Evolution of Forward Surgery in the US Army: From the Revolutionary War to the Combat Operations of the 21st Century from the Borden Institute describes forward U.S. Army surgery from the Revolutionary War to the present.

From a historical perspective, this comprehensive book explains the advances in medicine and forward surgical care provided to wounded and ill soldiers on the frontline. The book opens with the role of military medicine and its impact on casualty care from the Revolutionary War to the War of 1812. In particular, it discusses the impact of disease during the Revolutionary War through the post-Civil War period.

Advancements in medicine continued to progress after the Civil War into World War I. By the time the U.S. Army entered into WWI, the Army Medical Department had evolved considerably. The book explains how new technologies in forward surgery impacted the “great war.” Advances in medications, lifesaving transfusions, and transportation vehicles such as motorized ambulances were introduced during this period.

Additionally, the research further describes Army forward surgery in WWII and its impact on an international level as well the wars that followed. It discusses the medical and surgical care of the various theater campaigns during WWII, particularly the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations, focusing on forward surgery. Forward surgery continued to evolve during the Korean and Vietnam Wars which introduced the need for Mobile Army Surgical Hospitals (MASH) and helicopter medical evacuations. These advancements provided immediate accessibility to administer surgical care to wounded soldiers near the front lines.

More recent wars showcase advances in radiography, blood collection, pain management, MEDEVAC units, anesthesia equipment, and improved operating room lighting for better surgical conditions and outcomes.

The text concludes with the designation of a formal forward surgical team and its challenges during the Global War on Terrorism as well as a final chapter discussion on homeland defense, contingency operations, and future directions.

Evolution of Forward Surgery in the US Army: From the Revolutionary War to the Combat Operations of the 21st Century is available in a variety of formats from various outlets. To learn more click here.

Find more resources published by the U.S. Army Borden Institute

The GPO Online Bookstore – Easy Access to Federal Publications

HOW DO I OBTAIN THIS RESOURCE?

Sign up to receive promotional bulletin emails from the US Government Online Bookstore.

Shop Online Anytime: You can buy a vast majority of eBooks or print publications —with FREE Standard Shipping worldwide— from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore at https://bookstore.gpo.gov.

Visit our Retail Store: To buy or order a copy of any print editions from this collection at GPO’s retail bookstore at 710 North Capitol Street NW, Washington, DC 20401, open Monday–Friday, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., except Federal holidays, Call (202) 512-0132 for information or to arrange in-store pick-up(s).

Order by Phone or Email: Call our Customer Contact Center Monday through Friday, 8 am to 4:30 pm Eastern (except US Federal holidays). From US and Canada, call toll-free 1.866.512.1800. DC or International customers call +1.202.512.1800.  Email orders to ContactCenter@gpo.gov

Visit a Federal depository library: Search for U.S. Government publications in a nearby Federal depository library. You can find the records for most titles in GPO’s Catalog of U.S. Government Publications.

Find more than a million official Federal Government publications from all three branches at www.govinfo.gov.

About the author: Blogger contributor Trudy Hawkins is the the Sr. Marketing & Promotions Specialist in GPO’s Publication & Information Sales Division supporting the U.S. Government Online Bookstore.


The Latest Advancements in Emergency War Surgery

August 12, 2019

The U.S. Army’s Borden Institute continues on the cutting edge of medical advancements with its new Emergency War Surgery 5th edition publication now available for FREE download in PDF and other formats. This edition features the latest practices in combat casualty care, such as weapons effects and war wounds, damage control surgery, biological warfare agents, and mass casualty and triage from battlefield experiences in Afghanistan, Iraq and wherever America’s warriors are serving.

The publication is especially helpful to nonsurgical personnel, including emergency room physicians, medical researchers, and pre-med students to identify patients who need more advanced care. This latest edition also offers a chapter featuring Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) providing for the first time evidence-based, lifesaving methods at the point of injury. It also updates the Clinical Practice Guidelines, and adds new information about blood collection and transfusions.

This edition extends the scope and value of battlefield proven studies for applications that can serve global academic and healthcare professionals engaged in life-saving emergency practices and operations.

While the focus of the Borden Institute’s medical advancement studies are designed to serve America’s military medical needs, unquestionably the value of the Institute’s work goes beyond combat zones.

Emergency War Surgery 5th US Revision, in addition to saving U.S military lives, offers the medical knowledge to successfully address potential civilian medical crisis as well.

Find more resources published by the U.S. Army Borden Institute

The GPO Online Bookstore – Easy Access to Federal Publications

HOW DO I OBTAIN THIS RESOURCE?

Sign up to receive promotional bulletin emails from the US Government Online Bookstore.

Shop Online Anytime: You can buy a vast majority of eBooks or print publications —with FREE Standard Shipping worldwide— from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore at https://bookstore.gpo.gov.

Visit our Retail Store: To buy or order a copy of any print editions from this collection at GPO’s retail bookstore at 710 North Capitol Street NW, Washington, DC 20401, open Monday–Friday, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., except Federal holidays, Call (202) 512-0132 for information or to arrange in-store pick-up(s).

Order by Phone or Email: Call our Customer Contact Center Monday through Friday, 8 am to 4:30 pm Eastern (except US Federal holidays). From US and Canada, call toll-free 1.866.512.1800. DC or International customers call +1.202.512.1800.  Email orders to ContactCenter@gpo.gov

Visit a Federal depository library: Search for U.S. Government publications in a nearby Federal depository library. You can find the records for most titles in GPO’s Catalog of U.S. Government Publications.

Find more than a million official Federal Government publications from all three branches at www.govinfo.gov.

About the author: Blogger contributor Trudy Hawkins is the the Sr. Marketing & Promotions Specialist in GPO’s Publication & Information Sales Division supporting the U.S. Government Online Bookstore.


Lessons Learned from the Borden Institute

June 18, 2019

The Borden Institute, the U.S. Army “Center of Excellence in Military Medical Research and Education,” is renowned for its comprehensive reference books on the art and science of military medicine.

Now, in its 5th US Revision, Emergency War Surgery incorporates Tactical Casualty Combat Care to provide evidence-based, lifesaving techniques and strategies for providing the best trauma care on the battlefield.  The Tactical Casualty Combat Care chapter will provide first responders with the tools to adequately address wounds at the point of injury. The publication expertly addresses the appropriate medical management of blast wounds, burns, and multiple penetrating injuries, as well as other battle and non-battle injuries. This edition also includes updates in Clinical Practice Guidelines, with expanded coverage in the areas of blood collection and transfusions. The chapters that deal with mass casualty, triage, and care from trauma surgeries may provide hands-on reference to many readers beyond military medicine.

“There is no comparable textbook on the best practices and principles of forward deployed trauma surgery.” – R.C. Bono, VADM, MC, USN and Director, Defense Health Agency

This publication is especially useful to nonsurgical personnel to identify patients who may need more advanced care. Major life saving techniques include triage, hemorrhage control, airway/breathing, shock and resuscitation, and more.

This new updated edition is now available as a FREE digital download in ePub, MOBI and PDF eBook formats at the U.S. Government Online Bookstore.

You can also find many other helpful medical and physician references in both print and digital formats published by the U.S. Army, Borden Institute here.

The GPO Online Bookstore – Easy Access to Federal Publications

HOW DO I OBTAIN THIS RESOURCE?

Sign up to receive promotional bulletin emails from the US Government Online Bookstore.

Shop Online Anytime: You can buy a vast majority of eBooks or print publications —with FREE Standard Shipping worldwide— from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore at https://bookstore.gpo.gov.

Visit our Retail Store: To buy or order a copy of any print editions from this collection at GPO’s retail bookstore at 710 North Capitol Street NW, Washington, DC 20401, open Monday–Friday, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., except Federal holidays, Call (202) 512-0132 for information or to arrange in-store pick-up(s).

Order by Phone or Email: Call our Custoer Contact Center Monday through Friday, 8 am to 4:30 pm Eastern (except US Federal holidays). From US and Canada, call toll-free 1.866.512.1800. DC or International customers call +1.202.512.1800.  Email orders to ContactCenter@gpo.gov

Find more than a million official Federal Government publications from all three branches at www.govinfo.gov.

About the author: Blogger contributor Ed Kessler is a Promotions Specialist in GPO’s Publication and Information Sales program office.


Remembering D-Day

June 5, 2019

Troops approaching Normandy Beach, D-Day, World War II.

On June 6, 1944, exactly 75 years ago, in perhaps the most seminal battle of World War II, the U.S., together with Britain and Canada, executed Operation Overlord, better known to us as D-Day, in which they, alongside other countries, invaded the coasts of Normandy, carrying out the largest seaborne invasion in history against Nazi-Germany. The U.S. Government Publishing Office invites you to remember this historic day by highlighting some resources from our collections.

 Cross Channel Attack, by Gordan Harrison, available from the U.S. Government Bookstore, details that the preparation for D-Day started long before landing on the beaches of Normandy. The allied forces carried out an act of military deception, known as Operation Bodyguard, in which the goal was to mislead the Germans as to the location and date of the allied landing. Hitler was nonetheless aware that allied forces were intending to invade, which is why he ordered the construction of the “Atlantic Wall,” a 2,400-mile line of bunkers, mines, and water obstacles along the coast of Normandy.But due to the lack of time and resources, he was unable to complete the wall in its entirety. For the allied forces, the element of surprise was of grave importance–if Hitler did not know the exact locations of allied entry, he would be forced to spread his forces thinly along the entire coast, which is exactly what ended up happening. Though combat was difficult in all five allied-landing sites, it could have been much worse had Operation Bodyguard not succeeded.

Sometimes visuals speak louder than words; D-Day: The 6th of June (Map poster), also available from the U.S. Government Bookstore, helps one considerably in visualizing the aforementioned scenario, allowing one to see where exactly the allied forces landed and how vast the coast of Normandy actually is.

The landings were preceded by extensive aerial and naval bombardment. For organizational purposes, the allied forces divided the 50-mile coast of Normandy into five strategic sections: Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword.  In 1944, at 6:30, allied forces landed on the beaches, and on each one they encountered different levels of resistance. For instance, at Omaha, the shore was heavily mined and for this reason, Omaha suffered the highest number of casualties. At Juno, despite losing 50% of their force, the Canadians succeeded in capturing most of the beach. On June 11th, all five beaches were captured. The U.S., Canada, Britain, and allied powers pushed Germany on the Western front while the Soviet Union pushed on the Eastern front, and less than a year after D-Day, Germany surrendered unconditionally. The aforementioned is a small summary of Omaha Beachhead, a book which provides significant details on the struggles at every beach.

On D-Day, men and women from all over the world came together for a common goal. Though this event happened on a 50-mile coast of land, it impacted everyone, which is why D-Day is remembered to this day throughout the world. For instance, in 2012, the French Ministry of Culture announced its official consideration for adding the D-Day landing beaches to the UNESCO list of world heritage sites. In addition, the United States on an annual basis commemorates the memory of D-Day. “D-Day Plus 50 Years” is one such example.These commemorations can be found on govinfo.

GPO offers a wide array of resources that cover every angle of D-Day. These include beautiful maps, commemorations, digital images, and historical books. The  books mentioned above are available for purchase from the U.S. Government Bookstore, and can also be downloaded for free electronically via GPO’s Catalog of Government Publications. Below is a small sample of resources we offer:

Available from the Catalog of Government Publications

Available from the U.S. Government Bookstore

Available on govinfo

The GPO Online Bookstore – Easy Access to Federal Publications

HOW DO I OBTAIN THESE RESOURCES?

You can click on the links above in this blog article or through any of these methods:

Sign up to receive promotional bulletin emails from the US Government Online Bookstore.

Shop Online Anytime: You can buy a vast majority of eBooks or print publications —with FREE Standard Shipping worldwide— from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore at https://bookstore.gpo.gov.

Shop our Retail Store: Buy a copy of any print editions from this collection at GPO’s retail bookstore at 710 North Capitol Street NW, Washington, DC 20401, open Monday–Friday, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., except Federal holidays, Call (202) 512-0132 for information or to arrange in-store pick-up.

Order by Phone: Call our Customer Contact Center Monday through Friday, 8 am to 4:30 pm Eastern (except US Federal holidays). From US and Canada, call toll-free 1.866.512.1800. DC or International customers call +1.202.512.1800. Email orders to ContactCenter@gpo.gov

Find more than a million official Federal Government publications from all three branches at www.govinfo.gov.

Visit a Federal depository library: Search for U.S. Government publications in a nearby Federal depository library. You can find the records for most titles in GPO’s Catalog of U.S. Government Publications.

About the author: Blogger contributor Mohammed Butt is a Technical Services Librarian in GPO’s Library Services & Content Management unit.


Part Three: Publications on the Second War of American Independence: The War of 1812

January 29, 2019

It’s time for the third and final installation of our War of 1812 blog series. While the War of 1812 was going on, a separate battle was being fought in the American South. This battle came to be known as the Creek War. The Creek War was a two-pronged conflict. First, it included a civil war among two factions in the Creek Nation. Second, it became an international struggle in which the United States, Britain, Spain, and other Indian tribes fought for land.

Creek Indians lived in some of the most desired lands in the western part of Georgia. Settlers were eager to move to this land and claim it as their own. One faction of the Creeks, the Lower Creeks, gave up some of their property to the settlers in treaties made between the two. But Indians in the Upper Creek weren’t happy about these treaties and refused to acknowledge them. This group often attacked the Georgia settlers in an attempt to keep what they believed to be rightfully theirs.

In 1790, the U.S. government made its first treaty with the Creeks in which both the Upper and Lower Creeks participated. In later treaties, the Creeks ceded more land to the U.S. The United States instituted a “civilization program.” Through the program, Americans taught agriculture and domestic arts to the Creeks. The Lower Creeks took to the program much better than the Upper Creeks, who remained resistant to assimilation. Meanwhile, many Indians in the Lower Creeks became wealthy. Their economy transformed from a hunting/bartering economy to a market economy. When the U.S. decided to extend the Federal Road through Creek territory, the Upper Creeks grew even more impatient. The road, which would connect Georgia with the Mississippi Territory, would also be a means for settlers to flood into the land. When they did, more and more tension ensued.

Shawnee warrior Tecumseh and his brother “the Prophet” allied with the British and other Indian tribes in the north. Tecumseh encouraged an uprising by the Indians against the Americans. His followers first killed several white travelers on the Federal Road in the Spring of 1812. The group, which came to be known as the Red Sticks, carried out many other attacks throughout that year. Those Indians who had formed bonds with the settlers rejected Tecumseh’s call to war. However, most Indian nations sided with the British against the U.S. In total, more than two dozen native nations, including the Cherokees, Choctaws, and Mohawks, became part of the war in one way or another.

Was America ultimately victorious or was Tecumseh able to gather enough followers to defeat the Americans? Get the full, fascinating story of the battle for land and cultural influence in The Creek War, available now at the GPO Bookstore.

Finish off your War of 1812 reading with The Canadian Theater 1814. The year 1814 would test whether the United States had learned enough from the disappointments of the past eighteen months to defeat the wave of British veterans that was about to reach North America. President Madison and his cabinet understood only too well that, if the United States were to win its war, victory would have to come quickly before the full might of Britain arrived. The Army would need to be even stronger. Congress attempted once again to expand the size of the Army by raising the enlistment bonus from $40 to $124 and by increasing the authorized strength to 62,500 men. It also augmented the numbers of regimental officers and noncommissioned officers to give regimental commanders more recruiters. Despite these measures, Army strength rose only to approximately forty thousand men by the time active campaigning began in 1814. Read this booklet, which covers many battles, including Oswego, Sandy Creek, Chippewa, to find out if President Madison and the American military were able to defeat the British once and for all.

The War of 1812 is not one to be overlooked. Regarded by many as “the second war of independence,” it contributed to the growth of the American military and the physical expansion of the United States. The successes of the war helped boost the confidence of American soldiers and citizens and shape the country into what it is today. Thanks for coming on the journey to learn more about this impactful war.

The GPO Online Bookstore – Easy Access to Federal Publications

HOW DO I OBTAIN THESE RESOURCES?

Shop Online Anytime: You can buy eBooks or print publications —with FREE Standard Shipping worldwide— from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore at https://bookstore.gpo.gov.

Shop our Retail Store: Buy a copy of any print editions from this collection at GPO’s retail bookstore at 710 North Capitol Street NW, Washington, DC 20401, open Monday–Friday, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., except Federal holidays, Call (202) 512-0132 for information or to arrange in-store pick-up.

Order by Phone: Call our Customer Contact Center Monday through Friday, 8 am to 5:30 pm Eastern (except US Federal holidays). From US and Canada, call toll-free 1.866.512.1800. DC or International customers call +1.202.512.1800.

Visit a Federal depository library: Search for U.S. Government publications in a nearby Federal depository library. You can find the records for most titles in GPO’s Catalog of U.S. Government Publications.

Find more than a million official Federal Government publications from all three branches at www.govinfo.gov.

About the author: Blogger contributor Cat Goergen is the PR Specialist in GPO’s Public Relations office.


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